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Verfolge deine Bestellung Muss ich etwas bei der Zahlung von Partner-Artikeln beachten? Du bezahlst Partner-Artikel genauso wie Zalando-Artikel - auch bei. Partner-Artikel werden in der Regel direkt von den Partnern verschickt - du erhältst sie meist in einem separaten Paket von den Zalando-Artikeln. Woher weiß. Partner-Artikel werden in der Regel direkt von den Partnern verschickt - du erhältst sie meist in einem separaten Paket von den Zalando-Artikeln. Der Versand. The Partner Program is your gateway to the Zalando Platform, offering growth opportunities and advantages to all parties. Innovative technical solutions allow. Wohin sende ich meine Partner-Artikel? Wenn du deine Partner-Artikel in einem separaten Paket von den Zalando-Artikeln erhalten hast, schicke sie bitte auch.

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Wenn du „Geht klar“ sagst, bist du damit einverstanden und erlaubst uns, diese Daten an Dritte weiterzugeben, etwa an unsere Marketingpartner. Falls du dem. Wohin sende ich meine Partner-Artikel? Wenn du deine Partner-Artikel in einem separaten Paket von den Zalando-Artikeln erhalten hast, schicke sie bitte auch. Verfolge deine Bestellung Muss ich etwas bei der Zahlung von Partner-Artikeln beachten? Du bezahlst Partner-Artikel genauso wie Zalando-Artikel - auch bei.

TradeByte, Anatwine, or ChannelAdvisor. We support you in your first article onboarding and your commercial launch on Zalando.

Increase profitability, leverage overall business processes and cut costs. Within Partner Program, partners can leverage our add-on services in customer fulfillment , marketing and offprice.

Our Partner Services represent a broad spectrum of services and products, such as Partner Program, Zalando Marketing Services ZMS , Zalando Fulfillment Solutions ZFS , and Connected Retail, all aimed at helping our partners overcome challenges in their digital value chain by leveraging our technology, marketing or convenience strengths.

Here are some examples of what brands can get with Partner Services. Connected Retail provides new ways fashion partners can join the Zalando platform, by either connecting stock from warehouses and local stores, or by taking over order fulfillment.

Brands are able to integrate their stock directly into the Zalando Fashion Store. Brands retain control over the assortment, prices and brand representation; truly putting them in the driving seat.

Through the new service, Zalando takes over the order fulfillment for partners from inbound to return, with simple and individual solutions catered to their specific needs.

This new initiative will help to further improve the frictionless fashion experience for customers across Europe. We decided to go from being a retail company enabled through technology to a technology company that enabled retail.

At the heart of its business is a holistic data-driven marketing approach for fashion and lifestyle brands across many different channels.

Use this list and mention its support in your Open API definition. This allows clients to identify the resource and to update their local copy when receiving a response with this header.

For reading operations GET and HEAD , a different location than the requested URI can be used to indicate that the returned resource is subject to content negotiations, and that the value provides a more specific identifier of the resource.

For writing operations PUT and PATCH , an identical location to the requested URI can be used to explicitly indicate that the returned resource is the current representation of the newly created or updated resource.

For writing operations POST and DELETE , a content location can be used to indicate that the body contains a status report resource in response to the requested action, which is available at provided location.

For example:. As the correct usage of Content-Location with respect to semantics and caching is difficult, we discourage the use of Content-Location.

In most cases it is sufficient to direct clients to the resource location by using the Location header instead without hitting the Content-Location specific ambiguities and complexities.

More details in RFC 7. The Prefer header defined in RFC allows clients to request processing behaviors from servers.

It pre-defines a number of preferences and is extensible, to allow others to be defined. Support for the Prefer header is entirely optional and at the discretion of API designers, but as an existing Internet Standard, is recommended over defining proprietary "X-" headers for processing directives.

The Prefer header can defined like this in an API definition:. Note: Please copy only the behaviors into your Prefer header specification that are supported by your API endpoint.

If necessary, specify different Prefer headers for each supported use case. When creating or updating resources it may be necessary to expose conflicts and to prevent the 'lost update' or 'initially created' problem.

If no matching entity is found, the operation is supposed a to respond with status code - precondition failed. If any matching entity is found, the operation is supposed a to respond with status code - precondition failed.

When creating or updating resources it can be helpful or necessary to ensure a strong idempotent behavior comprising same responses, to prevent duplicate execution in case of retries after timeout and network outages.

Generally, this can be achieved by sending a client specific unique request key — that is not part of the resource — via Idempotency-Key header.

The unique request key is stored temporarily, e. The service can now look up the unique request key in the key cache and serve the response from the key cache, instead of re-executing the request, to ensure idempotent behavior.

Optionally, it can check the request hash for consistency before serving the response. If the key is not in the key store, the request is executed as usual and the response is stored in the key cache.

This allows clients to safely retry requests after timeouts, network outages, etc. Note: The request retry in this context requires to send the exact same request, i.

The request hash in the key cache can protection against this misbehavior. The service is recommended to reject such a request using status code Important: To grant a reliable idempotent execution semantic, the resource and the key cache have to be updated with hard transaction semantics — considering all potential pitfalls of failures, timeouts, and concurrent requests in a distributed systems.

This makes a correct implementation exceeding the local context very hard. The Idempotency-Key header must be defined as follows, but you are free to choose your expiration time:.

Hint: The key cache is not intended as request log, and therefore should have a limited lifetime, else it could easily exceed the data resource in size.

Our only reference are the usage in the Stripe API. However, as it fit not into our section about Proprietary headers , and we did not want to change the header name and semantic, we decided to treat it as any other common header.

This section shares definitions of proprietary headers that should be named consistently because they address overarching service-related concerns.

Whether services support these concerns or not is optional; therefore, the Open API API specification is the right place to make this explicitly visible.

Use the parameter definitions of the resource HTTP methods. As a general rule, proprietary HTTP headers should be avoided. Still they can be useful in cases where context needs to be passed through multiple services in an end-to-end fashion.

As such, a valid use-case for a proprietary header is providing context information, which is not a part of the actual API, but is needed by subsequent communication.

From a conceptual point of view, the semantics and intent of an operation should always be expressed by URLs path and query parameters, the method, and the content.

Headers are more often used to implement functions close to the protocol considerations, such as flow control, content negotiation, and authentication.

Thus, headers are reserved for general context information RFC X- headers were initially reserved for unstandardized parameters, but the usage of X- headers is deprecated RFC This complicates the contract definition between consumer and producer of an API following these guidelines, since there is no aligned way of using those headers.

Because of this, the guidelines restrict which X- headers can be used and how they are used. We aim for backward compatibility, and therefore keep the X- prefix.

The following proprietary headers have been specified by this guideline for usage so far. Remember that HTTP header field names are not case-sensitive.

Identifies the tenant initiated the request to the multi tenant Zalando Platform. Sales channels are owned by retailers and represent a specific consumer segment being addressed with a specific product assortment that is offered via CFA retailer catalogs to consumers see platform glossary internal link.

Consumer facing applications CFAs provide business experience to their customers via different frontend application types, for instance, mobile app or browser.

Current range is mobile-app, browser, facebook-app, chat-app. There are also use cases for steering customer experience incl.

Via this header info should be passed-through as generic aspect. Current range is smartphone, tablet, desktop, other. On top of device type above, we even want to differ between device platform, e.

Called services should be ready to pass this parameter through when calling other services. It is not sent if the customer disables it in the settings for respective mobile platform.

Exception: The only exception to this guideline are the conventional hop-by-hop X-RateLimit- headers which can be used as defined in MUST use code with headers for rate limits.

All headers specified above must be propagated to the services down the call chain. The header names and values must remain unchanged.

For example, the values of the custom headers like X-Device-Type can affect the results of queries by using device type information to influence recommendation results.

Besides, the values of the custom headers can influence the results of the queries e. Sometimes the value of a proprietary header will be used as part of the entity in a subsequent request.

In such cases, the proprietary headers must still be propagated as headers with the subsequent request, despite the duplication of information.

The Flow-ID is a generic parameter to be passed through service APIs and events and written into log files and traces.

A consequent usage of the Flow-ID facilitates the tracking of call flows through our system and allows the correlation of service activities initiated by a specific call.

This is extremely helpful for operational troubleshooting and log analysis. Main use case of Flow-ID is to track service calls of our SaaS fashion commerce platform and initiated internal processing flows executed synchronously via APIs or asynchronously via published events.

Note: If a legacy subsystem can only process Flow-IDs with a specific format or length, it must define this restrictions in its API specification, and be generous and remove invalid characters or cut the length to the supported limit.

Services must propagate Flow-ID , i. Hint: This rule also applies to application internal interfaces and events not published via Nakadi but e.

While this is optional for internal APIs, i. We prefer this deployment artifact-based method over the past now legacy.

Background: In our dynamic and complex service infrastructure, it is important to provide API client developers a central place with online access to the API specifications of all running applications.

Note: To publish an API, it is still necessary to deploy the artifact successful, as we focus the discovery experience on APIs supported by running services.

This information, for instance, is useful to identify potential review partner for API changes. Hint: A preferred way of client detection implementation is by logging of the client-id retrieved from the OAuth token.

The guidelines in this section focus on how to design and publish events intended to be shared for others to consume.

Events are defined using an item called an Event Type. The Event Type allows events to have their structure declared with a schema by producers and understood by consumers.

Event Types also allow the declaration of validation and enrichment strategies for events, along with supplemental information such as how events can be partitioned in an event stream.

Event Types belong to a well known Event Category such as a data change category , which provides extra information that is common to that kind of event.

Each event published can then be validated against the overall structure of its event type and the schema for its custom data.

Services publishing data for integration must treat their events as a first class design concern, just as they would an API.

For example this means approaching events with the "API first" principle in mind as described in the Introduction. Services publishing event data for use by others must make the event schema as well as the event type definition available for review.

This is particularly useful for events that represent data changes about resources also used in other APIs.

For convenience, we highlight some important differences below. A future version of the guidelines may define well known vendor extensions for events.

The Event Type declares standard information as follows:. Event Types allow easier discovery of event information and ensure that information is well-structured, consistent, and can be validated.

Event type owners must pay attention to the choice of compatibility mode. The mode provides a means to evolve the schema. The range of modes are designed to be flexible enough so that producers can evolve schemas while not inadvertently breaking existing consumers:.

When validating events, undefined properties are accepted unless declared in the schema. A new schema, S1 , is fully compatible when every event published since the first schema version will validate against the latest schema.

In compatible mode, only the addition of new optional properties and definitions to an existing schema is allowed.

Other changes are forbidden. The compatibility mode interact with revision numbers in the schema version field, which follows semantic versioning MAJOR.

PATCH :. MAJOR breaking changes are not allowed. All other changes are considered MAJOR level, such as renaming or removing fields, or adding new required fields.

APIs such as registries supporting event types, may extend the model, including the set of supported categories and schema formats. An event category describes a generic class of event types.

The guidelines define two such categories:. Data Change Event: a category used for describing changes to data entities used for data replication based data integration.

A category describes a predefined structure that event publishers must conform to along with standard information about that kind of event such as the operation for a data change event.

Event types based on the General Event Category define their custom schema payload at the top-level of the document, with the metadata field being reserved for standard information the contents of metadata are described further down in this section.

In the example fragment below, the reserved metadata field is shown with fields "a" and "b" being defined as part of the custom schema:.

The General Event in a previous version of the guidelines was called a Business Event. The General Event is still useful and recommended for the purpose of defining events that drive a business process.

The Nakadi broker still refers to the General Category as the Business Category and uses the keyword "business" for event type registration.

Other than that, the JSON structures are identical. See MUST use the general event category to signal steps and arrival points in business processes for more guidance on how to use the category.

In the example fragment below, the fields a and b are part of the custom payload housed inside the data field:. MUST use data change events to signal mutations.

The General and Data Change event categories share a common structure for metadata. For example brokers such as Nakadi, can validate and enrich events with arbitrary additional fields that are not specified here and may set default or other values, if some of the specified fields are not supplied.

How such systems work is outside the scope of these guidelines but producers and consumers working with such systems should look into their documentation for additional information.

They should be based around the resources and business processes you have defined for your service domain and adhere to its natural lifecycle see also SHOULD model complete business processes and SHOULD define useful resources.

Similar to API permission scopes, there will be event type permissions passed via an OAuth token supported in near future. In the meantime, teams are asked to note the following:.

Sensitive data, such as e-mail addresses, phone numbers, etc are subject to strict access and data protection controls. For example, events sometimes need to provide personal data, such as delivery addresses in shipment orders as do other APIs , and this is fine.

When publishing events that represent steps in a business process, event types must be based on the General Event category. Business events must contain a specific identifier field a business process id or "bp-id" similar to flow-id to allow for efficient aggregation of all events in a business process execution.

Business events must contain a means to correctly order events in a business process execution. Each business process sequence should be started by a business event containing all relevant context information.

For now we suggest assessing each option and sticking to one for a given business process. When publishing events that represents created, updated, or deleted data, change event types must be based on the Data Change Event category.

Change events must identify the changed entity to allow aggregation of all related events for the entity. Some common error cases may require event consumers to reconstruct event streams or replay events from a position within the stream.

Events should therefore contain a way to restore their partial order of occurrence. System timestamps are not necessarily a good choice, since exact synchronization of clocks in distributed systems is difficult, two events may occur in the same microsecond and system clocks may jump backward or forward to compensate drifts or leap-seconds.

If you use system timestamps to indicate event ordering, you must carefully ensure that your designated event order is not messed up by these effects.

Also, if using timestamps, the producer must make sure that they are formatted for all events in the UTC time zone, to allow for a simple string-based comparison.

Note that basing events on data structures that can be converged upon in a distributed setting such as CRDTs , logical clocks and vector clocks is outside the scope of this guidance.

The hash partition strategy allows a producer to define which fields in an event are used as input to compute a logical partition the event should be added to.

Partitions are useful as they allow supporting systems to scale their throughput while provide local ordering for event entities.

The hash option is particulary useful for data changes as it allows all related events for an entity to be consistently assigned to a partition, providing a relative ordered stream of events for that entity.

This is because while each partition has a total ordering, ordering across partitions is not assured by a supporting system, thus it is possible for events sent across partitions to appear in a different order to consumers that the order they arrived at the server.

When using the hash strategy the partition key in almost all cases should represent the entity being changed and not a per event or change identifier such as the eid field or a timestamp.

This ensures data changes arrive at the same partition for a given entity and can be consumed effectively by clients.

There may be exceptional cases where data change events could have their partition strategy set to be the producer defined or random options, but generally hash is the right option - that is while the guidelines here are a "should", they can be read as "must, unless you have a very good reason".

Consumers of the service will be working with fewer representations, and the service owners will have less API surface to maintain.

Some examples are -. Where the API resource representations are very different from the datastore representation, but the physical data are easier to reliably process for data integration.

Publishing aggregated data. For example a data change to an individual entity might cause an event to be published that contains a coarser representation than that defined for an API.

Events that are the result of a computation, such as a matching algorithm, or the generation of enriched data, and which might not be stored as entity by the service.

However, the owner may also be a particular service from a set of multiple services that are producing the same kind of event. Everything expressed in the Introduction to these Guidelines is applicable to event data interchange between services.

This is because our events, just like our APIs, represent a commitment to express what our systems do and designing high-quality, useful events allows us to develop new and interesting products and services.

What distinguishes events from other kinds of data is the delivery style used, asynchronous publish-subscribe messaging. Changes to events must be based around making additive and backward compatible changes.

This places a higher bar on producers to maintain compatibility as they will not be in a position to serve versioned media types on demand.

Adding a new optional field to redefine the meaning of an existing field also known as a co-occurrence constraint. Event type schema should avoid using additionalProperties declarations, in order to support schema evolution.

In particular, the schemas used by publishers and consumers can drift over time. As a result, compatibility and extensibility issues that happen less frequently with client-server style APIs become important and regular considerations for event design.

The guidelines recommend the following to enable event schema evolution:. Publishers who intend to provide compatibility and allow their schemas to evolve safely over time must not declare an additionalProperties field with a value of true i.

Instead they must define new optional fields and update their schemas in advance of publishing those fields. Consumers must ignore fields they cannot process and not raise errors.

This can happen if they are processing events with an older copy of the event schema than the one containing the new definitions specified by the publishers.

The above constraint does not mean fields can never be added in future revisions of an event type schema - additive compatible changes are allowed, only that the new schema for an event type must define the field first before it is published within an event.

By the same turn the consumer must ignore fields it does not know about from its copy of the schema, just as they would as an API client - that is, they cannot treat the absence of an additionalProperties field as though the event type schema was closed for extension.

Requiring event publishers to define their fields ahead of publishing avoids the problem of field redefinition.

This is when a publisher defines a field to be of a different type that was already being emitted, or, is changing the type of an undefined field.

Both of these are prevented by not using additionalProperties. The eid property is part of the standard metadata for an event and gives the event an identifier.

Producing clients must generate this value when sending an event and it must be guaranteed to be unique from the perspective of the owning application.

This allows consumers to process the eid to assert the event is unique and use it as an idempotency check. Note that uniqueness checking of the eid might be not enforced by systems consuming events and it is the responsibility of the producer to ensure event identifiers do in fact distinctly identify events.

A straightforward way to create a unique identifier for an event is to generate a UUID value.

To enable this freedom of processing, you must explicitly design for idempotent out-of-order processing: Either your events must contain enough information to infer their original order during consumption or your domain must be designed in a way that order becomes irrelevant.

As common example similar to data change events, idempotent out-of-order processing can be supported by sending the following information:.

A receiver that is interested in the current state can then ignore events that are older than the last processed event of each resource.

A receiver interested in the history of a resource can use the ordering key to recreate a partially ordered sequence of events.

The following application specific legacy convention is only allowed for internal event type names:.

Most message brokers and data streaming systems offer "at-least-once" delivery. That is, one particular event is delivered to the consumers one or more times.

Other circumstances can also cause duplicate events. In this case, the publisher will try to send the same event again.

This leads to two identical events in the event bus which have to be processed by the consumers. Similar conditions can appear on consumer side: an event has been processed successfully, but the consumer fails to confirm the processing.

Open API specification. Open API specification mind map. ISO : Date and time format. ISO alpha-2 : Two letter country codes. ISO : Two letter language codes.

This is not a part of the actual guidelines, but might be helpful for following them. Friboo : utility library to write microservices in Clojure with support for Swagger and OAuth.

Swagger Codegen : template-driven engine to generate client code in different languages by parsing Swagger Resource Declaration.

Jackson Datatype Money : extension module to properly support datatypes of javax. Tracer : call tracing and log correlation in distributed systems.

The best practices presented in this section are not part of the actual guidelines, but should provide guidance for common challenges we face when implementing RESTful APIs.

Optimistic locking might be used to avoid concurrent writes on the same entity, which might cause data loss.

A client always has to retrieve a copy of an entity first and specifically update this one. If another version has been created in the meantime, the update should fail.

In order to make this work, the client has to provide some kind of version reference, which is checked by the service, before the update is executed.

There are several ways to implement optimistic locking in combination with search endpoints which, depending on the approach chosen, might lead to performing additional requests to get the current version of the entity that should be updated.

An ETag can only be obtained by performing a GET request on the single entity resource before the update, i. The ETag for every entity is returned as an additional property of that entity.

In a response containing multiple entities, every entity will then have a distinct ETag that can be used in subsequent PUT requests.

In this solution, the etag property should be readonly and never be expected in the PUT request payload. The entities contain a property with a version number.

When an update is performed, this version number is given back to the service as part of the payload. The service performs a check on that version number to make sure it was not incremented since the consumer got the resource and performs the update, incrementing the version number.

Since this operation implies a modification of the resource by the service, a POST operation on the exact resource e.

In this solution, the version property is not readonly since it is provided at POST time as part of the payload. In HTTP 1. This is still part of the HTTP protocol and can be used.

When requesting an update using a PUT request, the client has to provide this value via the header If-Unmodified-Since.

The server rejects the request, if the last modified date of the entity is after the given date in the header. In the case of multiple result entities, the Last-Modified header will be set to the latest date of all the entities.

This ensures that any change to any of the entities that happens between GET and PUT will be detectable, without locking the rest of the batch as well.

Or, if there was an update since the GET and the entities last modified is later than the given date:. If a client communicates with two different instances and their clocks are not perfectly in sync, the locking could potentially fail.

Non-major changes are editorial-only changes or minor changes of existing guidelines, e. Major changes are changes that come with additional obligations, or even change an existing guideline obligation.

The latter changes are additionally labeled with "Rule Change" here. To see a list of all changes, please have a look at the commit list in Github.

From now on all rule changes on API guidelines will be recorded here. Ideally, all Zalando APIs will look like the same author created them.

Be liberal in what you accept, be conservative in what you send. API as a product As mentioned above, Zalando is transforming from an online shop into an expansive fashion platform comprising a rich set of products following a Software as a Platform SaaP model for our business partners.

Treat your API as product and act like a product owner Put yourself into the place of your customers; be an advocate for their needs Emphasize simplicity, comprehensibility, and usability of APIs to make them irresistible for client engineers Actively improve and maintain API consistency over the long term Make use of customer feedback and provide service level support.

However, you may use remote references to resources accessible by the following service URLs. API scope, purpose, and use cases concrete examples of API usage edge cases, error situation details, and repair hints architecture context and major dependencies - including figures and sequence flows.

Following Open API extension properties must be provided in addition:. Increment the MAJOR version when you make incompatible API changes after having aligned this changes with consumers, Increment the MINOR version when you add new functionality in a backwards-compatible manner, and Optionally increment the PATCH version when you make backwards-compatible bug fixes or editorial changes not affecting the functionality.

Relevant for standards around quality of design and documentation, reviews, discoverability, changeability, and permission granting.

Accessible by any user; no permissions needed. MUST follow naming convention for permissions scopes As long as the functional naming is not supported for permissions, permission names in APIs must conform to the following naming pattern:.

Add only optional, never mandatory fields. Service clients must be prepared for compatible API extensions of service providers:. SHOULD used open-ended list of values x-extensible-enum for enumerations Enumerations are per definition closed sets of values, that are assumed to be complete and not intended for extension.

Custom media type format Custom media type format should have the following pattern:. Example In this example, a client wants only the new version of the response:.

Use a custom media type, e. Vary: Content-Type. MUST collect external partner consent on deprecation time span If the API is consumed by any external partner, the API owner must define a reasonable time span that the API will be maintained after the producer has announced deprecation.

Here is an example for such a map definition the translations property :. The following table shows all combinations and whether the examples are valid:.

SHOULD encode embedded binary data in base64url Exposing binary data using an alternative media type is generally preferred.

Please notice that the list is not exhaustive and everyone is encouraged to propose additions. SHOULD use standards for country, language and currency codes Use the following standard formats for country, language and currency codes:.

MUST define format for number and integer types Whenever an API defines a property of type number or integer , the precision must be defined by the format as follows to prevent clients from guessing the precision incorrectly, and thereby changing the value unintentionally:.

Common data types Definitions of data objects that are good candidates for wider usage:. MUST use the common money object Use the following common money structure:.

APIs are encouraged to include a reference to the global schema for Money. Jackson Datatype Money Less flexible since both amounts are coupled together, e.

Pros No inheritance, hence no issue with the substitution principle Makes use of existing library support No coupling, i.

Notes Please be aware that some business cases e. MUST use common field names and semantics There exist a variety of field types that are required in multiple places.

Generic fields There are some data fields that come up again and again in API data:. Link relation fields To foster a consistent look and feel using simple hypertext controls for paginating and iterating over collection values the response objects should follow a common pattern using the below field semantics:.

ResponsePage : type : object properties : self : description : Pagination link pointing to the current page. The response page may contain additional metadata about the collection or the current page.

Address fields Address structures play a role in different functional and use-case contexts, including country variances. Please see the following rules for detailed functional naming patterns:.

MUST use lowercase separate words with hyphens for path segments Example:. MUST avoid trailing slashes The trailing slash must not have specific semantics.

MUST stick to conventional query parameters If you provide query support for searching, sorting, filtering, and paginating, you must stick to the following naming conventions:.

The added benefit is that you already have a service for browsing and filtering article locks.

MAY expose compound keys as resource identifiers If a resource is best identified by a compound key consisting of multiple other resource identifiers, it is allowed to reuse the compound key in its natural form containing slashes instead of technical resource identifier in the resource path without violating the above rule MUST identify resources and sub-resources via path segments as follows:.

MAY consider using non- nested URLs If a sub-resource is only accessible via its parent resource and may not exist without parent resource, consider using a nested URL structure, for instance:.

SHOULD limit number of resource types To keep maintenance and service evolution manageable, we should follow "functional segmentation" and "separation of concern" design principles and do not mix different business functionalities in same API definition.

SHOULD limit number of sub-resource levels There are main resources with root url paths and sub-resources or nested resources with non-root urls paths.

GET requests for individual resources will usually generate a if the resource does not exist GET requests for collection resources may return either if the collection is empty or if the collection is missing GET requests must NOT have a request body payload see GET with body.

GET with body APIs sometimes face the problem, that they have to provide extensive structured request information with GET , that may conflict with the size limits of clients, load-balancers, and servers.

PUT PUT requests are used to update in rare cases to create entire resources — single or collection resources. PUT requests are usually applied to single resources, and not to collection resources, as this would imply replacing the entire collection PUT requests are usually robust against non-existence of resources by implicitly creating before updating on successful PUT requests, the server will replace the entire resource addressed by the URL with the representation passed in the payload subsequent reads will deliver the same payload successful PUT requests will usually generate or if the resource was updated — with or without actual content returned , and if the resource was created.

POST POST requests are idiomatically used to create single resources on a collection resource endpoint, but other semantics on single resources endpoint are equally possible.

PATCH requests are usually applied to single resources as patching entire collection is challenging PATCH requests are usually not robust against non-existence of resource instances on successful PATCH requests, the server will update parts of the resource addressed by the URL as defined by the change request in the payload successful PATCH requests will usually generate or if resources have been updated with or without updated content returned.

A good example here for a secondary key is the shopping cart ID in an order resource. MUST define collection format of header and query parameters Header and query parameters allow to provide a collection of values, either by providing a comma-separated list of values or by repeating the parameter multiple times with different values as follows:.

Reference to corresponding property, if any Value range, e. SHOULD design complex query languages using JSON Minimalistic query languages based on query parameters are suitable for simple use cases with a small set of available filters that are combined in one way and one way only e.

Aspects that set those APIs apart from the rest include but are not limited to:. Unusual high number of available filters Dynamic filters, due to a dynamic and extensible resource model Free choice of operators, e.

Data structures are easy to use for clients No special library support necessary No need for string concatenation or manual escaping.

No special tokenizers needed Semantics are attached to data structures rather than text tokens.

No external documents or grammars needed Existing means are familiar to everyone.

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Dafür wird Fashion generell sehr click höhermargig als z. Abwicklung der logistischen Prozesse mit ZFS. Beitrag nicht abgeschickt - E-Mail Adresse kontrollieren! Natürlich ist es ein Ziel von Zalando die Margen zu steigern und das Risiko zu senken. Informiere mich über neue Beiträge per E-Mail. Ist nur die Frage, wie https://mobilnitelefoni.co/james-bond-casino-royale-full-movie-online/baby-von-william-und-kate-name.php Hersteller so etwas mitmachen und nicht die eigenen Shops stärker pushen. Wenn die Read more tatsächlich angehoben wird, werden reihenweise Händler aussteigen, zumindest wenn sie die Nach Malta beherrschen. Hier sind einige Beispiele dafür, was Brands mit den Partner Services erreichen können. Zalando SE Partner Programm. Mit Partner Services stellen wir Marken. Wenn du „Geht klar“ sagst, bist du damit einverstanden und erlaubst uns, diese Daten an Dritte weiterzugeben, etwa an unsere Marketingpartner. Falls du dem. Partner-Artikel werden in der Regel direkt von den Partnern verschickt - du erhältst sie dann in einem separaten Paket von den Zalando-Artikeln. So erkennst du. Die aggressive, neue Zalando-Strategie (Exchanges #) war ein großes Thema dieses Jahr auf der K5 (siehe u.a. die Abschlussrunde): Wer. Das steckt hinter dem Zalando Stellenabbau im Marketing. mobilnitelefoni.co mobilnitelefoni.co Zugegriffen: Auf diese Weise bringen wir offline und online Services zusammen und schaffen ein besseres Einkaufserlebnis für unsere gemeinsamen Kunden. Abwicklung der logistischen Prozesse mit ZFS. Selbst die werden es sich genau Überlegen, ob Sie continue reading Plattform stärken und sich in eine ähnliche Abhängigkeit begeben, wie bei Amazon, oder click to see more Sie lieber Ihre eigene Marke und den eigenen Online Vertriebskanal stärken. Learn how your comment data is processed. Dafür wird Fashion generell sehr viel höhermargig als z. Siehe dazu auch Amazon aus Sicht eines Marktplatzhändlers. Ihr Blog kann leider keine Beiträge per E-Mail teilen. Services must propagate Flow-IDi. Please notice that the list is not exhaustive and everyone is encouraged to propose additions. In this case, it is best practice to encode only page position and direction in the cursor and transport the query filter in the body - in the request as well as in the response. Publishing aggregated data. SHOULD prefer click to see more pagination, avoid offset-based pagination Cursor-based pagination is usually better and more efficient when read article to article source pagination. Pagination responses should contain the following additional array regret, Beste Spielothek in KС†selitz finden can to transport the page content:.

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Important: To grant a reliable idempotent execution semantic, the resource and the key cache have to be updated with hard transaction semantics — considering all potential pitfalls of failures, timeouts, and concurrent requests in a distributed systems.

This makes a correct implementation exceeding the local context very hard. The Idempotency-Key header must be defined as follows, but you are free to choose your expiration time:.

Hint: The key cache is not intended as request log, and therefore should have a limited lifetime, else it could easily exceed the data resource in size.

Our only reference are the usage in the Stripe API. However, as it fit not into our section about Proprietary headers , and we did not want to change the header name and semantic, we decided to treat it as any other common header.

This section shares definitions of proprietary headers that should be named consistently because they address overarching service-related concerns.

Whether services support these concerns or not is optional; therefore, the Open API API specification is the right place to make this explicitly visible.

Use the parameter definitions of the resource HTTP methods. As a general rule, proprietary HTTP headers should be avoided.

Still they can be useful in cases where context needs to be passed through multiple services in an end-to-end fashion. As such, a valid use-case for a proprietary header is providing context information, which is not a part of the actual API, but is needed by subsequent communication.

From a conceptual point of view, the semantics and intent of an operation should always be expressed by URLs path and query parameters, the method, and the content.

Headers are more often used to implement functions close to the protocol considerations, such as flow control, content negotiation, and authentication.

Thus, headers are reserved for general context information RFC X- headers were initially reserved for unstandardized parameters, but the usage of X- headers is deprecated RFC This complicates the contract definition between consumer and producer of an API following these guidelines, since there is no aligned way of using those headers.

Because of this, the guidelines restrict which X- headers can be used and how they are used. We aim for backward compatibility, and therefore keep the X- prefix.

The following proprietary headers have been specified by this guideline for usage so far. Remember that HTTP header field names are not case-sensitive.

Identifies the tenant initiated the request to the multi tenant Zalando Platform. Sales channels are owned by retailers and represent a specific consumer segment being addressed with a specific product assortment that is offered via CFA retailer catalogs to consumers see platform glossary internal link.

Consumer facing applications CFAs provide business experience to their customers via different frontend application types, for instance, mobile app or browser.

Current range is mobile-app, browser, facebook-app, chat-app. There are also use cases for steering customer experience incl.

Via this header info should be passed-through as generic aspect. Current range is smartphone, tablet, desktop, other. On top of device type above, we even want to differ between device platform, e.

Called services should be ready to pass this parameter through when calling other services. It is not sent if the customer disables it in the settings for respective mobile platform.

Exception: The only exception to this guideline are the conventional hop-by-hop X-RateLimit- headers which can be used as defined in MUST use code with headers for rate limits.

All headers specified above must be propagated to the services down the call chain. The header names and values must remain unchanged.

For example, the values of the custom headers like X-Device-Type can affect the results of queries by using device type information to influence recommendation results.

Besides, the values of the custom headers can influence the results of the queries e. Sometimes the value of a proprietary header will be used as part of the entity in a subsequent request.

In such cases, the proprietary headers must still be propagated as headers with the subsequent request, despite the duplication of information.

The Flow-ID is a generic parameter to be passed through service APIs and events and written into log files and traces.

A consequent usage of the Flow-ID facilitates the tracking of call flows through our system and allows the correlation of service activities initiated by a specific call.

This is extremely helpful for operational troubleshooting and log analysis. Main use case of Flow-ID is to track service calls of our SaaS fashion commerce platform and initiated internal processing flows executed synchronously via APIs or asynchronously via published events.

Note: If a legacy subsystem can only process Flow-IDs with a specific format or length, it must define this restrictions in its API specification, and be generous and remove invalid characters or cut the length to the supported limit.

Services must propagate Flow-ID , i. Hint: This rule also applies to application internal interfaces and events not published via Nakadi but e.

While this is optional for internal APIs, i. We prefer this deployment artifact-based method over the past now legacy.

Background: In our dynamic and complex service infrastructure, it is important to provide API client developers a central place with online access to the API specifications of all running applications.

Note: To publish an API, it is still necessary to deploy the artifact successful, as we focus the discovery experience on APIs supported by running services.

This information, for instance, is useful to identify potential review partner for API changes.

Hint: A preferred way of client detection implementation is by logging of the client-id retrieved from the OAuth token.

The guidelines in this section focus on how to design and publish events intended to be shared for others to consume.

Events are defined using an item called an Event Type. The Event Type allows events to have their structure declared with a schema by producers and understood by consumers.

Event Types also allow the declaration of validation and enrichment strategies for events, along with supplemental information such as how events can be partitioned in an event stream.

Event Types belong to a well known Event Category such as a data change category , which provides extra information that is common to that kind of event.

Each event published can then be validated against the overall structure of its event type and the schema for its custom data. Services publishing data for integration must treat their events as a first class design concern, just as they would an API.

For example this means approaching events with the "API first" principle in mind as described in the Introduction. Services publishing event data for use by others must make the event schema as well as the event type definition available for review.

This is particularly useful for events that represent data changes about resources also used in other APIs. For convenience, we highlight some important differences below.

A future version of the guidelines may define well known vendor extensions for events. The Event Type declares standard information as follows:.

Event Types allow easier discovery of event information and ensure that information is well-structured, consistent, and can be validated.

Event type owners must pay attention to the choice of compatibility mode. The mode provides a means to evolve the schema. The range of modes are designed to be flexible enough so that producers can evolve schemas while not inadvertently breaking existing consumers:.

When validating events, undefined properties are accepted unless declared in the schema. A new schema, S1 , is fully compatible when every event published since the first schema version will validate against the latest schema.

In compatible mode, only the addition of new optional properties and definitions to an existing schema is allowed.

Other changes are forbidden. The compatibility mode interact with revision numbers in the schema version field, which follows semantic versioning MAJOR.

PATCH :. MAJOR breaking changes are not allowed. All other changes are considered MAJOR level, such as renaming or removing fields, or adding new required fields.

APIs such as registries supporting event types, may extend the model, including the set of supported categories and schema formats. An event category describes a generic class of event types.

The guidelines define two such categories:. Data Change Event: a category used for describing changes to data entities used for data replication based data integration.

A category describes a predefined structure that event publishers must conform to along with standard information about that kind of event such as the operation for a data change event.

Event types based on the General Event Category define their custom schema payload at the top-level of the document, with the metadata field being reserved for standard information the contents of metadata are described further down in this section.

In the example fragment below, the reserved metadata field is shown with fields "a" and "b" being defined as part of the custom schema:.

The General Event in a previous version of the guidelines was called a Business Event. The General Event is still useful and recommended for the purpose of defining events that drive a business process.

The Nakadi broker still refers to the General Category as the Business Category and uses the keyword "business" for event type registration.

Other than that, the JSON structures are identical. See MUST use the general event category to signal steps and arrival points in business processes for more guidance on how to use the category.

In the example fragment below, the fields a and b are part of the custom payload housed inside the data field:. MUST use data change events to signal mutations.

The General and Data Change event categories share a common structure for metadata. For example brokers such as Nakadi, can validate and enrich events with arbitrary additional fields that are not specified here and may set default or other values, if some of the specified fields are not supplied.

How such systems work is outside the scope of these guidelines but producers and consumers working with such systems should look into their documentation for additional information.

They should be based around the resources and business processes you have defined for your service domain and adhere to its natural lifecycle see also SHOULD model complete business processes and SHOULD define useful resources.

Similar to API permission scopes, there will be event type permissions passed via an OAuth token supported in near future.

In the meantime, teams are asked to note the following:. Sensitive data, such as e-mail addresses, phone numbers, etc are subject to strict access and data protection controls.

For example, events sometimes need to provide personal data, such as delivery addresses in shipment orders as do other APIs , and this is fine.

When publishing events that represent steps in a business process, event types must be based on the General Event category.

Business events must contain a specific identifier field a business process id or "bp-id" similar to flow-id to allow for efficient aggregation of all events in a business process execution.

Business events must contain a means to correctly order events in a business process execution.

Each business process sequence should be started by a business event containing all relevant context information.

For now we suggest assessing each option and sticking to one for a given business process. When publishing events that represents created, updated, or deleted data, change event types must be based on the Data Change Event category.

Change events must identify the changed entity to allow aggregation of all related events for the entity.

Some common error cases may require event consumers to reconstruct event streams or replay events from a position within the stream.

Events should therefore contain a way to restore their partial order of occurrence. System timestamps are not necessarily a good choice, since exact synchronization of clocks in distributed systems is difficult, two events may occur in the same microsecond and system clocks may jump backward or forward to compensate drifts or leap-seconds.

If you use system timestamps to indicate event ordering, you must carefully ensure that your designated event order is not messed up by these effects.

Also, if using timestamps, the producer must make sure that they are formatted for all events in the UTC time zone, to allow for a simple string-based comparison.

Note that basing events on data structures that can be converged upon in a distributed setting such as CRDTs , logical clocks and vector clocks is outside the scope of this guidance.

The hash partition strategy allows a producer to define which fields in an event are used as input to compute a logical partition the event should be added to.

Partitions are useful as they allow supporting systems to scale their throughput while provide local ordering for event entities.

The hash option is particulary useful for data changes as it allows all related events for an entity to be consistently assigned to a partition, providing a relative ordered stream of events for that entity.

This is because while each partition has a total ordering, ordering across partitions is not assured by a supporting system, thus it is possible for events sent across partitions to appear in a different order to consumers that the order they arrived at the server.

When using the hash strategy the partition key in almost all cases should represent the entity being changed and not a per event or change identifier such as the eid field or a timestamp.

This ensures data changes arrive at the same partition for a given entity and can be consumed effectively by clients. There may be exceptional cases where data change events could have their partition strategy set to be the producer defined or random options, but generally hash is the right option - that is while the guidelines here are a "should", they can be read as "must, unless you have a very good reason".

Consumers of the service will be working with fewer representations, and the service owners will have less API surface to maintain.

Some examples are -. Where the API resource representations are very different from the datastore representation, but the physical data are easier to reliably process for data integration.

Publishing aggregated data. For example a data change to an individual entity might cause an event to be published that contains a coarser representation than that defined for an API.

Events that are the result of a computation, such as a matching algorithm, or the generation of enriched data, and which might not be stored as entity by the service.

However, the owner may also be a particular service from a set of multiple services that are producing the same kind of event.

Everything expressed in the Introduction to these Guidelines is applicable to event data interchange between services. This is because our events, just like our APIs, represent a commitment to express what our systems do and designing high-quality, useful events allows us to develop new and interesting products and services.

What distinguishes events from other kinds of data is the delivery style used, asynchronous publish-subscribe messaging.

Changes to events must be based around making additive and backward compatible changes. This places a higher bar on producers to maintain compatibility as they will not be in a position to serve versioned media types on demand.

Adding a new optional field to redefine the meaning of an existing field also known as a co-occurrence constraint. Event type schema should avoid using additionalProperties declarations, in order to support schema evolution.

In particular, the schemas used by publishers and consumers can drift over time. As a result, compatibility and extensibility issues that happen less frequently with client-server style APIs become important and regular considerations for event design.

The guidelines recommend the following to enable event schema evolution:. Publishers who intend to provide compatibility and allow their schemas to evolve safely over time must not declare an additionalProperties field with a value of true i.

Instead they must define new optional fields and update their schemas in advance of publishing those fields. Consumers must ignore fields they cannot process and not raise errors.

This can happen if they are processing events with an older copy of the event schema than the one containing the new definitions specified by the publishers.

The above constraint does not mean fields can never be added in future revisions of an event type schema - additive compatible changes are allowed, only that the new schema for an event type must define the field first before it is published within an event.

By the same turn the consumer must ignore fields it does not know about from its copy of the schema, just as they would as an API client - that is, they cannot treat the absence of an additionalProperties field as though the event type schema was closed for extension.

Requiring event publishers to define their fields ahead of publishing avoids the problem of field redefinition.

This is when a publisher defines a field to be of a different type that was already being emitted, or, is changing the type of an undefined field.

Both of these are prevented by not using additionalProperties. The eid property is part of the standard metadata for an event and gives the event an identifier.

Producing clients must generate this value when sending an event and it must be guaranteed to be unique from the perspective of the owning application.

This allows consumers to process the eid to assert the event is unique and use it as an idempotency check.

Note that uniqueness checking of the eid might be not enforced by systems consuming events and it is the responsibility of the producer to ensure event identifiers do in fact distinctly identify events.

A straightforward way to create a unique identifier for an event is to generate a UUID value. To enable this freedom of processing, you must explicitly design for idempotent out-of-order processing: Either your events must contain enough information to infer their original order during consumption or your domain must be designed in a way that order becomes irrelevant.

As common example similar to data change events, idempotent out-of-order processing can be supported by sending the following information:.

A receiver that is interested in the current state can then ignore events that are older than the last processed event of each resource.

A receiver interested in the history of a resource can use the ordering key to recreate a partially ordered sequence of events.

The following application specific legacy convention is only allowed for internal event type names:. Most message brokers and data streaming systems offer "at-least-once" delivery.

That is, one particular event is delivered to the consumers one or more times. Other circumstances can also cause duplicate events. In this case, the publisher will try to send the same event again.

This leads to two identical events in the event bus which have to be processed by the consumers. Similar conditions can appear on consumer side: an event has been processed successfully, but the consumer fails to confirm the processing.

Open API specification. Open API specification mind map. ISO : Date and time format. ISO alpha-2 : Two letter country codes.

ISO : Two letter language codes. This is not a part of the actual guidelines, but might be helpful for following them. Friboo : utility library to write microservices in Clojure with support for Swagger and OAuth.

Swagger Codegen : template-driven engine to generate client code in different languages by parsing Swagger Resource Declaration. Jackson Datatype Money : extension module to properly support datatypes of javax.

Tracer : call tracing and log correlation in distributed systems. The best practices presented in this section are not part of the actual guidelines, but should provide guidance for common challenges we face when implementing RESTful APIs.

Optimistic locking might be used to avoid concurrent writes on the same entity, which might cause data loss.

A client always has to retrieve a copy of an entity first and specifically update this one. If another version has been created in the meantime, the update should fail.

In order to make this work, the client has to provide some kind of version reference, which is checked by the service, before the update is executed.

There are several ways to implement optimistic locking in combination with search endpoints which, depending on the approach chosen, might lead to performing additional requests to get the current version of the entity that should be updated.

An ETag can only be obtained by performing a GET request on the single entity resource before the update, i. The ETag for every entity is returned as an additional property of that entity.

In a response containing multiple entities, every entity will then have a distinct ETag that can be used in subsequent PUT requests.

In this solution, the etag property should be readonly and never be expected in the PUT request payload.

The entities contain a property with a version number. When an update is performed, this version number is given back to the service as part of the payload.

The service performs a check on that version number to make sure it was not incremented since the consumer got the resource and performs the update, incrementing the version number.

Since this operation implies a modification of the resource by the service, a POST operation on the exact resource e. In this solution, the version property is not readonly since it is provided at POST time as part of the payload.

In HTTP 1. This is still part of the HTTP protocol and can be used. When requesting an update using a PUT request, the client has to provide this value via the header If-Unmodified-Since.

The server rejects the request, if the last modified date of the entity is after the given date in the header.

In the case of multiple result entities, the Last-Modified header will be set to the latest date of all the entities. This ensures that any change to any of the entities that happens between GET and PUT will be detectable, without locking the rest of the batch as well.

Or, if there was an update since the GET and the entities last modified is later than the given date:. If a client communicates with two different instances and their clocks are not perfectly in sync, the locking could potentially fail.

Non-major changes are editorial-only changes or minor changes of existing guidelines, e. Major changes are changes that come with additional obligations, or even change an existing guideline obligation.

The latter changes are additionally labeled with "Rule Change" here. To see a list of all changes, please have a look at the commit list in Github.

From now on all rule changes on API guidelines will be recorded here. Ideally, all Zalando APIs will look like the same author created them.

Be liberal in what you accept, be conservative in what you send. API as a product As mentioned above, Zalando is transforming from an online shop into an expansive fashion platform comprising a rich set of products following a Software as a Platform SaaP model for our business partners.

Treat your API as product and act like a product owner Put yourself into the place of your customers; be an advocate for their needs Emphasize simplicity, comprehensibility, and usability of APIs to make them irresistible for client engineers Actively improve and maintain API consistency over the long term Make use of customer feedback and provide service level support.

However, you may use remote references to resources accessible by the following service URLs. API scope, purpose, and use cases concrete examples of API usage edge cases, error situation details, and repair hints architecture context and major dependencies - including figures and sequence flows.

Following Open API extension properties must be provided in addition:. Increment the MAJOR version when you make incompatible API changes after having aligned this changes with consumers, Increment the MINOR version when you add new functionality in a backwards-compatible manner, and Optionally increment the PATCH version when you make backwards-compatible bug fixes or editorial changes not affecting the functionality.

Relevant for standards around quality of design and documentation, reviews, discoverability, changeability, and permission granting.

Accessible by any user; no permissions needed. MUST follow naming convention for permissions scopes As long as the functional naming is not supported for permissions, permission names in APIs must conform to the following naming pattern:.

Add only optional, never mandatory fields. Service clients must be prepared for compatible API extensions of service providers:.

SHOULD used open-ended list of values x-extensible-enum for enumerations Enumerations are per definition closed sets of values, that are assumed to be complete and not intended for extension.

Custom media type format Custom media type format should have the following pattern:. Example In this example, a client wants only the new version of the response:.

Use a custom media type, e. Vary: Content-Type. MUST collect external partner consent on deprecation time span If the API is consumed by any external partner, the API owner must define a reasonable time span that the API will be maintained after the producer has announced deprecation.

Here is an example for such a map definition the translations property :. The following table shows all combinations and whether the examples are valid:.

SHOULD encode embedded binary data in base64url Exposing binary data using an alternative media type is generally preferred. Please notice that the list is not exhaustive and everyone is encouraged to propose additions.

SHOULD use standards for country, language and currency codes Use the following standard formats for country, language and currency codes:.

MUST define format for number and integer types Whenever an API defines a property of type number or integer , the precision must be defined by the format as follows to prevent clients from guessing the precision incorrectly, and thereby changing the value unintentionally:.

Common data types Definitions of data objects that are good candidates for wider usage:. MUST use the common money object Use the following common money structure:.

APIs are encouraged to include a reference to the global schema for Money. Jackson Datatype Money Less flexible since both amounts are coupled together, e.

Pros No inheritance, hence no issue with the substitution principle Makes use of existing library support No coupling, i.

Notes Please be aware that some business cases e. MUST use common field names and semantics There exist a variety of field types that are required in multiple places.

Generic fields There are some data fields that come up again and again in API data:. Link relation fields To foster a consistent look and feel using simple hypertext controls for paginating and iterating over collection values the response objects should follow a common pattern using the below field semantics:.

ResponsePage : type : object properties : self : description : Pagination link pointing to the current page. The response page may contain additional metadata about the collection or the current page.

Address fields Address structures play a role in different functional and use-case contexts, including country variances.

Please see the following rules for detailed functional naming patterns:. MUST use lowercase separate words with hyphens for path segments Example:.

MUST avoid trailing slashes The trailing slash must not have specific semantics. MUST stick to conventional query parameters If you provide query support for searching, sorting, filtering, and paginating, you must stick to the following naming conventions:.

The added benefit is that you already have a service for browsing and filtering article locks. MAY expose compound keys as resource identifiers If a resource is best identified by a compound key consisting of multiple other resource identifiers, it is allowed to reuse the compound key in its natural form containing slashes instead of technical resource identifier in the resource path without violating the above rule MUST identify resources and sub-resources via path segments as follows:.

MAY consider using non- nested URLs If a sub-resource is only accessible via its parent resource and may not exist without parent resource, consider using a nested URL structure, for instance:.

SHOULD limit number of resource types To keep maintenance and service evolution manageable, we should follow "functional segmentation" and "separation of concern" design principles and do not mix different business functionalities in same API definition.

SHOULD limit number of sub-resource levels There are main resources with root url paths and sub-resources or nested resources with non-root urls paths.

GET requests for individual resources will usually generate a if the resource does not exist GET requests for collection resources may return either if the collection is empty or if the collection is missing GET requests must NOT have a request body payload see GET with body.

GET with body APIs sometimes face the problem, that they have to provide extensive structured request information with GET , that may conflict with the size limits of clients, load-balancers, and servers.

PUT PUT requests are used to update in rare cases to create entire resources — single or collection resources. PUT requests are usually applied to single resources, and not to collection resources, as this would imply replacing the entire collection PUT requests are usually robust against non-existence of resources by implicitly creating before updating on successful PUT requests, the server will replace the entire resource addressed by the URL with the representation passed in the payload subsequent reads will deliver the same payload successful PUT requests will usually generate or if the resource was updated — with or without actual content returned , and if the resource was created.

POST POST requests are idiomatically used to create single resources on a collection resource endpoint, but other semantics on single resources endpoint are equally possible.

PATCH requests are usually applied to single resources as patching entire collection is challenging PATCH requests are usually not robust against non-existence of resource instances on successful PATCH requests, the server will update parts of the resource addressed by the URL as defined by the change request in the payload successful PATCH requests will usually generate or if resources have been updated with or without updated content returned.

A good example here for a secondary key is the shopping cart ID in an order resource. MUST define collection format of header and query parameters Header and query parameters allow to provide a collection of values, either by providing a comma-separated list of values or by repeating the parameter multiple times with different values as follows:.

Reference to corresponding property, if any Value range, e. SHOULD design complex query languages using JSON Minimalistic query languages based on query parameters are suitable for simple use cases with a small set of available filters that are combined in one way and one way only e.

Aspects that set those APIs apart from the rest include but are not limited to:. Unusual high number of available filters Dynamic filters, due to a dynamic and extensible resource model Free choice of operators, e.

Data structures are easy to use for clients No special library support necessary No need for string concatenation or manual escaping.

No special tokenizers needed Semantics are attached to data structures rather than text tokens. No external documents or grammars needed Existing means are familiar to everyone.

MUST document implicit filtering Sometimes certain collection resources or queries will not list all the possible elements they have, but only those for which the current client is authorized to access.

In such cases, the implicit filtering must be in the API specification in its description. Consider caching considerations when implicitly filtering.

Only the business partners to which you have access to are returned. BatchOrBulkResponse : description : batch response object.

A number or extensible enum describing the execution status of the batch or bulk request items. X-RateLimit-Remaining : The number of requests allowed in the current window.

Examples of problem types that do not satisfy our criteria:. MUST not expose stack traces Stack traces contain implementation details that are not part of an API, and on which clients should never rely.

SHOULD support partial responses via filtering Depending on your use case and payload size, you can significantly reduce network bandwidth need by supporting filtering of returned entity fields.

SHOULD allow optional embedding of sub-resources Embedding related resources also know as Resource expansion is a great way to reduce the number of requests.

If your service really requires to support caching, please observe the following rules:. Clients and proxies are free to not support caching of results, however if they do, they must obey all directives mentioned in [RFC Section 5.

In case of caching, the directive provides the scope of the cache entry, i. Please note, that the lifetime and validation directives for shared caches are different s-maxage, proxy-revalidate.

A client or proxy cache must respect this information, to ensure that it delivers the correct cache entry see [RFC Section 7.

Vary: accept, accept-encoding. Pagination MUST support pagination Access to lists of data items must support pagination to protect the service against overload as well as for best client side iteration and batch processing experience.

SHOULD prefer cursor-based pagination, avoid offset-based pagination Cursor-based pagination is usually better and more efficient when compared to offset-based pagination.

Before choosing cursor-based pagination, consider the following trade-offs:. Very big data sets, especially if they cannot reside in the main memory of the database.

Sharded or NoSQL databases. SHOULD use pagination links where applicable To simplify client design, APIs should support simplified hypertext controls for pagination over collections whenever applicable.

MUST use common hypertext controls When embedding links to other resources into representations you must use the common hypertext control object.

HttpLink : description : A base type of objects representing links to resources. SHOULD use simple hypertext controls for pagination and self-references For pagination and self-references a simplified form of the extensible common hypertext controls should be used to reduce the specification and cognitive overhead.

Common headers This section describes a handful of headers, which we found raised the most questions in our daily usage, or which are useful in particular circumstances but not widely known.

The Content-Location header can be used to support the following use cases:. We support you in your first article onboarding and your commercial launch on Zalando.

Increase profitability, leverage overall business processes and cut costs. Within Partner Program, partners can leverage our add-on services in customer fulfillment , marketing and offprice.

If you want to work with us, please fill out this form , we look forward to hearing from you. Digitizing Stock with Connected Retail.

Exciting Assortment with Partner Program. How Connected Retail creates advantages for customers, retailers and Zalando.

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Related Content. Corporate strategy. We operate in a variety of business areas, focusing on the fashion industry.

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